# GLM: Logistic Regression¶

• This is a reproduction with a few slight alterations of Bayesian Log Reg by J. Benjamin Cook
• Author: Peadar Coyle and J. Benjamin Cook
• How likely am I to make more than $50,000 US Dollars? • Exploration of model selection techniques too - I use WAIC to select the best model. • The convenience functions are all taken from Jon Sedars work. • This example also has some explorations of the features so serves as a good example of Exploratory Data Analysis and how that can guide the model creation/ model selection process. [1]:  %matplotlib inline import pandas as pd import numpy as np import pymc3 as pm import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import seaborn import warnings warnings.filterwarnings('ignore') from collections import OrderedDict from time import time import numpy as np import pandas as pd import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from scipy.optimize import fmin_powell from scipy import integrate import theano as thno import theano.tensor as T  [20]:  def run_models(df, upper_order=5): ''' Convenience function: Fit a range of pymc3 models of increasing polynomial complexity. Suggest limit to max order 5 since calculation time is exponential. ''' models, traces = OrderedDict(), OrderedDict() for k in range(1,upper_order+1): nm = 'k{}'.format(k) fml = create_poly_modelspec(k) with pm.Model() as models[nm]: print('\nRunning: {}'.format(nm)) pm.glm.GLM.from_formula(fml, df, family=pm.glm.families.Normal()) traces[nm] = pm.sample(2000, chains=1, init=None, tune=1000) return models, traces def plot_traces(traces, retain=1000): ''' Convenience function: Plot traces with overlaid means and values ''' ax = pm.traceplot(traces[-retain:], figsize=(12,len(traces.varnames)*1.5), lines={k: v['mean'] for k, v in pm.summary(traces[-retain:]).iterrows()}) for i, mn in enumerate(pm.summary(traces[-retain:])['mean']): ax[i,0].annotate('{:.2f}'.format(mn), xy=(mn,0), xycoords='data' ,xytext=(5,10), textcoords='offset points', rotation=90 ,va='bottom', fontsize='large', color='#AA0022') def create_poly_modelspec(k=1): ''' Convenience function: Create a polynomial modelspec string for patsy ''' return ('income ~ educ + hours + age ' + ' '.join(['+ np.power(age,{})'.format(j) for j in range(2,k+1)])).strip()  The Adult Data Set is commonly used to benchmark machine learning algorithms. The goal is to use demographic features, or variables, to predict whether an individual makes more than \$50,000 per year. The data set is almost 20 years old, and therefore, not perfect for determining the probability that I will make more than $50K, but it is a nice, simple dataset that can be used to showcase a few benefits of using Bayesian logistic regression over its frequentist counterpart. The motivation for myself to reproduce this piece of work was to learn how to use Odd Ratio in Bayesian Regression. [3]:  data = pd.read_csv("https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/machine-learning-databases/adult/adult.data", header=None, names=['age', 'workclass', 'fnlwgt', 'education-categorical', 'educ', 'marital-status', 'occupation', 'relationship', 'race', 'sex', 'captial-gain', 'capital-loss', 'hours', 'native-country', 'income'])  [4]:  data.head(10)  [4]:  age workclass fnlwgt education-categorical educ marital-status occupation relationship race sex captial-gain capital-loss hours native-country income 0 39 State-gov 77516 Bachelors 13 Never-married Adm-clerical Not-in-family White Male 2174 0 40 United-States <=50K 1 50 Self-emp-not-inc 83311 Bachelors 13 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0 0 13 United-States <=50K 2 38 Private 215646 HS-grad 9 Divorced Handlers-cleaners Not-in-family White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 3 53 Private 234721 11th 7 Married-civ-spouse Handlers-cleaners Husband Black Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 4 28 Private 338409 Bachelors 13 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Wife Black Female 0 0 40 Cuba <=50K 5 37 Private 284582 Masters 14 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Wife White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 6 49 Private 160187 9th 5 Married-spouse-absent Other-service Not-in-family Black Female 0 0 16 Jamaica <=50K 7 52 Self-emp-not-inc 209642 HS-grad 9 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0 0 45 United-States >50K 8 31 Private 45781 Masters 14 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Female 14084 0 50 United-States >50K 9 42 Private 159449 Bachelors 13 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 5178 0 40 United-States >50K ## Scrubbing and cleaning¶ We need to remove any null entries in Income. And we also want to restrict this study to the United States. [5]:  data = data[~pd.isnull(data['income'])]  [6]:  data[data['native-country']==" United-States"]  [6]:  age workclass fnlwgt education-categorical educ marital-status occupation relationship race sex captial-gain capital-loss hours native-country income 0 39 State-gov 77516 Bachelors 13 Never-married Adm-clerical Not-in-family White Male 2174 0 40 United-States <=50K 1 50 Self-emp-not-inc 83311 Bachelors 13 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0 0 13 United-States <=50K 2 38 Private 215646 HS-grad 9 Divorced Handlers-cleaners Not-in-family White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 3 53 Private 234721 11th 7 Married-civ-spouse Handlers-cleaners Husband Black Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 5 37 Private 284582 Masters 14 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Wife White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 7 52 Self-emp-not-inc 209642 HS-grad 9 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0 0 45 United-States >50K 8 31 Private 45781 Masters 14 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Female 14084 0 50 United-States >50K 9 42 Private 159449 Bachelors 13 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 5178 0 40 United-States >50K 10 37 Private 280464 Some-college 10 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband Black Male 0 0 80 United-States >50K 12 23 Private 122272 Bachelors 13 Never-married Adm-clerical Own-child White Female 0 0 30 United-States <=50K 13 32 Private 205019 Assoc-acdm 12 Never-married Sales Not-in-family Black Male 0 0 50 United-States <=50K 16 25 Self-emp-not-inc 176756 HS-grad 9 Never-married Farming-fishing Own-child White Male 0 0 35 United-States <=50K 17 32 Private 186824 HS-grad 9 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Unmarried White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 18 38 Private 28887 11th 7 Married-civ-spouse Sales Husband White Male 0 0 50 United-States <=50K 19 43 Self-emp-not-inc 292175 Masters 14 Divorced Exec-managerial Unmarried White Female 0 0 45 United-States >50K 20 40 Private 193524 Doctorate 16 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband White Male 0 0 60 United-States >50K 21 54 Private 302146 HS-grad 9 Separated Other-service Unmarried Black Female 0 0 20 United-States <=50K 22 35 Federal-gov 76845 9th 5 Married-civ-spouse Farming-fishing Husband Black Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 23 43 Private 117037 11th 7 Married-civ-spouse Transport-moving Husband White Male 0 2042 40 United-States <=50K 24 59 Private 109015 HS-grad 9 Divorced Tech-support Unmarried White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 25 56 Local-gov 216851 Bachelors 13 Married-civ-spouse Tech-support Husband White Male 0 0 40 United-States >50K 26 19 Private 168294 HS-grad 9 Never-married Craft-repair Own-child White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 28 39 Private 367260 HS-grad 9 Divorced Exec-managerial Not-in-family White Male 0 0 80 United-States <=50K 29 49 Private 193366 HS-grad 9 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 30 23 Local-gov 190709 Assoc-acdm 12 Never-married Protective-serv Not-in-family White Male 0 0 52 United-States <=50K 31 20 Private 266015 Some-college 10 Never-married Sales Own-child Black Male 0 0 44 United-States <=50K 32 45 Private 386940 Bachelors 13 Divorced Exec-managerial Own-child White Male 0 1408 40 United-States <=50K 33 30 Federal-gov 59951 Some-college 10 Married-civ-spouse Adm-clerical Own-child White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 34 22 State-gov 311512 Some-college 10 Married-civ-spouse Other-service Husband Black Male 0 0 15 United-States <=50K 36 21 Private 197200 Some-college 10 Never-married Machine-op-inspct Own-child White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 32528 31 Private 292592 HS-grad 9 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Wife White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 32529 29 Private 125976 HS-grad 9 Separated Sales Unmarried White Female 0 0 35 United-States <=50K 32530 35 ? 320084 Bachelors 13 Married-civ-spouse ? Wife White Female 0 0 55 United-States >50K 32531 30 ? 33811 Bachelors 13 Never-married ? Not-in-family Asian-Pac-Islander Female 0 0 99 United-States <=50K 32532 34 Private 204461 Doctorate 16 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband White Male 0 0 60 United-States >50K 32534 37 Private 179137 Some-college 10 Divorced Adm-clerical Unmarried White Female 0 0 39 United-States <=50K 32535 22 Private 325033 12th 8 Never-married Protective-serv Own-child Black Male 0 0 35 United-States <=50K 32536 34 Private 160216 Bachelors 13 Never-married Exec-managerial Not-in-family White Female 0 0 55 United-States >50K 32537 30 Private 345898 HS-grad 9 Never-married Craft-repair Not-in-family Black Male 0 0 46 United-States <=50K 32538 38 Private 139180 Bachelors 13 Divorced Prof-specialty Unmarried Black Female 15020 0 45 United-States >50K 32539 71 ? 287372 Doctorate 16 Married-civ-spouse ? Husband White Male 0 0 10 United-States >50K 32540 45 State-gov 252208 HS-grad 9 Separated Adm-clerical Own-child White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 32541 41 ? 202822 HS-grad 9 Separated ? Not-in-family Black Female 0 0 32 United-States <=50K 32542 72 ? 129912 HS-grad 9 Married-civ-spouse ? Husband White Male 0 0 25 United-States <=50K 32543 45 Local-gov 119199 Assoc-acdm 12 Divorced Prof-specialty Unmarried White Female 0 0 48 United-States <=50K 32544 31 Private 199655 Masters 14 Divorced Other-service Not-in-family Other Female 0 0 30 United-States <=50K 32545 39 Local-gov 111499 Assoc-acdm 12 Married-civ-spouse Adm-clerical Wife White Female 0 0 20 United-States >50K 32546 37 Private 198216 Assoc-acdm 12 Divorced Tech-support Not-in-family White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 32548 65 Self-emp-not-inc 99359 Prof-school 15 Never-married Prof-specialty Not-in-family White Male 1086 0 60 United-States <=50K 32549 43 State-gov 255835 Some-college 10 Divorced Adm-clerical Other-relative White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 32550 43 Self-emp-not-inc 27242 Some-college 10 Married-civ-spouse Craft-repair Husband White Male 0 0 50 United-States <=50K 32551 32 Private 34066 10th 6 Married-civ-spouse Handlers-cleaners Husband Amer-Indian-Eskimo Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 32552 43 Private 84661 Assoc-voc 11 Married-civ-spouse Sales Husband White Male 0 0 45 United-States <=50K 32554 53 Private 321865 Masters 14 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Husband White Male 0 0 40 United-States >50K 32555 22 Private 310152 Some-college 10 Never-married Protective-serv Not-in-family White Male 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 32556 27 Private 257302 Assoc-acdm 12 Married-civ-spouse Tech-support Wife White Female 0 0 38 United-States <=50K 32557 40 Private 154374 HS-grad 9 Married-civ-spouse Machine-op-inspct Husband White Male 0 0 40 United-States >50K 32558 58 Private 151910 HS-grad 9 Widowed Adm-clerical Unmarried White Female 0 0 40 United-States <=50K 32559 22 Private 201490 HS-grad 9 Never-married Adm-clerical Own-child White Male 0 0 20 United-States <=50K 32560 52 Self-emp-inc 287927 HS-grad 9 Married-civ-spouse Exec-managerial Wife White Female 15024 0 40 United-States >50K 29170 rows × 15 columns [7]:  income = 1 * (data['income'] == " >50K") age2 = np.square(data['age'])  [8]:  data = data[['age', 'educ', 'hours']] data['age2'] = age2 data['income'] = income  [9]:  income.value_counts()  [9]:  0 24720 1 7841 Name: income, dtype: int64  ## Exploring the data¶ Let us get a feel for the parameters. * We see that age is a tailed distribution. Certainly not Gaussian! * We don’t see much of a correlation between many of the features, with the exception of Age and Age2. * Hours worked has some interesting behaviour. How would one describe this distribution? [10]:  g = seaborn.pairplot(data)  [11]:  # Compute the correlation matrix corr = data.corr() # Generate a mask for the upper triangle mask = np.zeros_like(corr, dtype=np.bool) mask[np.triu_indices_from(mask)] = True # Set up the matplotlib figure f, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(11, 9)) # Generate a custom diverging colormap cmap = seaborn.diverging_palette(220, 10, as_cmap=True) # Draw the heatmap with the mask and correct aspect ratio seaborn.heatmap(corr, mask=mask, cmap=cmap, vmax=.3, linewidths=.5, cbar_kws={"shrink": .5}, ax=ax)  [11]:  <matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x7f938c13e7f0>  We see here not many strong correlations. The highest is 0.30 according to this plot. We see a weak-correlation between hours and income (which is logical), we see a slighty stronger correlation between education and income (which is the kind of question we are answering). ## The model¶ We will use a simple model, which assumes that the probability of making more than$50K is a function of age, years of education and hours worked per week. We will use PyMC3 do inference.

In Bayesian statistics, we treat everything as a random variable and we want to know the posterior probability distribution of the parameters (in this case the regression coefficients) The posterior is equal to the likelihood

$p(\theta | D) = \frac{p(D|\theta)p(\theta)}{p(D)}$

Because the denominator is a notoriously difficult integral, $p(D) = \int p(D \| :nbsphinx-math:theta) p(\theta) d :nbsphinx-math:theta $ we would prefer to skip computing it. Fortunately, if we draw examples from the parameter space, with probability proportional to the height of the posterior at any given point, we end up with an empirical distribution that converges to the posterior as the number of samples approaches infinity.

What this means in practice is that we only need to worry about the numerator.

Getting back to logistic regression, we need to specify a prior and a likelihood in order to draw samples from the posterior. We could use sociological knowledge about the effects of age and education on income, but instead, let’s use the default prior specification for GLM coefficients that PyMC3 gives us, which is $$p(θ)=N(0,10^{12}I)$$. This is a very vague prior that will let the data speak for themselves.

The likelihood is the product of n Bernoulli trials, $$\prod^{n}_{i=1} p_{i}^{y} (1 - p_{i})^{1-y_{i}}$$, where $$p_i = \frac{1}{1 + e^{-z_i}}$$,

$$z_{i} = \beta_{0} + \beta_{1}(age)_{i} + \beta_2(age)^{2}_{i} + \beta_{3}(educ)_{i} + \beta_{4}(hours)_{i}$$ and $$y_{i} = 1$$ if income is greater than 50K and $$y_{i} = 0$$ otherwise.

With the math out of the way we can get back to the data. Here I use PyMC3 to draw samples from the posterior. The sampling algorithm used is NUTS, which is a form of Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, in which parameteres are tuned automatically. Notice, that we get to borrow the syntax of specifying GLM’s from R, very convenient! I use a convenience function from above to plot the trace infromation from the first 1000 parameters.

[12]:

with pm.Model() as logistic_model:
pm.glm.GLM.from_formula('income ~ age + age2 + educ + hours', data, family=pm.glm.families.Binomial())
trace_logistic_model = pm.sample(2000, chains=1, tune=1000)

Auto-assigning NUTS sampler...
Sequential sampling (1 chains in 1 job)
NUTS: [hours, educ, age2, age, Intercept]
100%|██████████| 3000/3000 [22:29<00:00,  2.22it/s]
The acceptance probability does not match the target. It is 0.944638073234, but should be close to 0.8. Try to increase the number of tuning steps.
Only one chain was sampled, this makes it impossible to run some convergence checks

[13]:

plot_traces(trace_logistic_model, retain=1000)


## Some results¶

One of the major benefits that makes Bayesian data analysis worth the extra computational effort in many circumstances is that we can be explicit about our uncertainty. Maximum likelihood returns a number, but how certain can we be that we found the right number? Instead, Bayesian inference returns a distribution over parameter values.

I’ll use seaborn to look at the distribution of some of these factors.

[14]:

plt.figure(figsize=(9,7))
trace = trace_logistic_model[1000:]
seaborn.jointplot(trace['age'], trace['educ'], kind="hex", color="#4CB391")
plt.xlabel("beta_age")
plt.ylabel("beta_educ")
plt.show()

<matplotlib.figure.Figure at 0x7f9355afe518>


So how do age and education affect the probability of making more than $$$50K?$$ To answer this question, we can show how the probability of making more than$50K changes with age for a few different education levels. Here, we assume that the number of hours worked per week is fixed at 50. PyMC3 gives us a convenient way to plot the posterior predictive distribution. We need to give the function a linear model and a set of points to evaluate. We will pass in three different linear models: one with educ == 12 (finished high school), one with educ == 16 (finished undergrad) and one with educ == 19 (three years of grad school).

[15]:

# Linear model with hours == 50 and educ == 12
lm = lambda x, samples: 1 / (1 + np.exp(-(samples['Intercept'] +
samples['age']*x +
samples['age2']*np.square(x) +
samples['educ']*12 +
samples['hours']*50)))

# Linear model with hours == 50 and educ == 16
lm2 = lambda x, samples: 1 / (1 + np.exp(-(samples['Intercept'] +
samples['age']*x +
samples['age2']*np.square(x) +
samples['educ']*16 +
samples['hours']*50)))

# Linear model with hours == 50 and educ == 19
lm3 = lambda x, samples: 1 / (1 + np.exp(-(samples['Intercept'] +
samples['age']*x +
samples['age2']*np.square(x) +
samples['educ']*19 +
samples['hours']*50)))


Each curve shows how the probability of earning more than $50K$ changes with age. The red curve represents 19 years of education, the green curve represents 16 years of education and the blue curve represents 12 years of education. For all three education levels, the probability of making more than $50K increases with age until approximately age 60, when the probability begins to drop off. Notice that each curve is a little blurry. This is because we are actually plotting 100 different curves for each level of education. Each curve is a draw from our posterior distribution. Because the curves are somewhat translucent, we can interpret dark, narrow portions of a curve as places where we have low uncertainty and light, spread out portions of the curve as places where we have somewhat higher uncertainty about our coefficient values. [16]:  # Plot the posterior predictive distributions of P(income >$50K) vs. age
pm.plot_posterior_predictive_glm(trace, eval=np.linspace(25, 75, 1000), lm=lm, samples=100, color="blue", alpha=.15)
pm.plot_posterior_predictive_glm(trace, eval=np.linspace(25, 75, 1000), lm=lm2, samples=100, color="green", alpha=.15)
pm.plot_posterior_predictive_glm(trace, eval=np.linspace(25, 75, 1000), lm=lm3, samples=100, color="red", alpha=.15)
import matplotlib.lines as mlines
blue_line = mlines.Line2D(['lm'], [], color='b', label='High School Education')
green_line = mlines.Line2D(['lm2'], [], color='g', label='Bachelors')
red_line = mlines.Line2D(['lm3'], [], color='r', label='Grad School')
plt.legend(handles=[blue_line, green_line, red_line], loc='lower right')
plt.ylabel("P(Income > \$50K)")
plt.xlabel("Age")
plt.show()

[17]:

b = trace['educ']
plt.hist(np.exp(b), bins=20, normed=True)
plt.xlabel("Odds Ratio")
plt.show()


Finally, we can find a credible interval (remember kids - credible intervals are Bayesian and confidence intervals are frequentist) for this quantity. This may be the best part about Bayesian statistics: we get to interpret credibility intervals the way we’ve always wanted to interpret them. We are 95% confident that the odds ratio lies within our interval!

[18]:

lb, ub = np.percentile(b, 2.5), np.percentile(b, 97.5)

print("P(%.3f < O.R. < %.3f) = 0.95"%(np.exp(3*lb),np.exp(3*ub)))

P(2.617 < O.R. < 2.824) = 0.95


## Model selection¶

One question that was immediately asked was what effect does age have on the model, and why should it be $$age^2$$ versus age? We’ll run the model with a few changes to see what effect higher order terms have on this model in terms of WAIC.

[21]:

models_lin, traces_lin = run_models(data, 4)


Running: k1

Sequential sampling (1 chains in 1 job)
NUTS: [sd_log__, age, hours, educ, Intercept]
100%|██████████| 3000/3000 [00:31<00:00, 94.25it/s]
Only one chain was sampled, this makes it impossible to run some convergence checks


Running: k2

Sequential sampling (1 chains in 1 job)
NUTS: [sd_log__, np.power(age, 2), age, hours, educ, Intercept]
100%|██████████| 3000/3000 [02:10<00:00, 22.97it/s]
Only one chain was sampled, this makes it impossible to run some convergence checks


Running: k3

Sequential sampling (1 chains in 1 job)
NUTS: [sd_log__, np.power(age, 3), np.power(age, 2), age, hours, educ, Intercept]
100%|██████████| 3000/3000 [09:24<00:00,  5.31it/s]
Only one chain was sampled, this makes it impossible to run some convergence checks


Running: k4

Sequential sampling (1 chains in 1 job)
NUTS: [sd_log__, np.power(age, 4), np.power(age, 3), np.power(age, 2), age, hours, educ, Intercept]
100%|██████████| 3000/3000 [32:01<00:00,  1.56it/s]
The acceptance probability does not match the target. It is 0.885654681782, but should be close to 0.8. Try to increase the number of tuning steps.
The chain reached the maximum tree depth. Increase max_treedepth, increase target_accept or reparameterize.
Only one chain was sampled, this makes it impossible to run some convergence checks

[22]:

dfwaic = pd.DataFrame(index=['k1','k2','k3','k4'], columns=['lin'])
dfwaic.index.name = 'model'

for nm in dfwaic.index:
dfwaic.loc[nm, 'lin'] = pm.waic(traces_lin[nm],models_lin[nm])[0]

dfwaic = pd.melt(dfwaic.reset_index(), id_vars=['model'], var_name='poly', value_name='waic')

g = seaborn.factorplot(x='model', y='waic', col='poly', hue='poly', data=dfwaic, kind='bar', size=6)


WAIC confirms our decision to use age^2.